عنوان مقاله [English]
The law of Karma and rebirth are among important issues which concern the afterlife, determinism and free will, predestination, and man's fate. Thus, they are discussed in Indian religions and philosophical schools and almost all of them accept the two. They are foundations of their philosophical ideas. Karma means action and reaction. In other words, whatever the action may be (whether good or evil), it has a reaction. All of them are of the opinion that the order of universe is reflected in human beings' moral system. There is, however, some dispute among researchers concerning the origin of the notion "karma". Some of them are of the opinion that karma has a Vedic origin. Some others think that belief in karma has its roots in the beliefs of pre-Vedic native tribes. Karma and the rebirth are spoken of in Upanishads as well; and separation of the soul from body has been explicitly mentioned there. Karma and rebirth have been explicitly mentioned in Gita as well. In addition, belief in karma may be found in Buddhism and Jainism. In Buddhism, the term "samskara" has been employed which means force, will, making and combining. In Jainism, wandering of the soul in the hierarchy of being has been noted. They believe that we have to free the soul from the prison of body by observing moral principles and piety. From among the contemporary Indian thinkers, Aurobindo has seriously studied the concept of karma. This point has been one of his primary concerns and he has discussed the point within the framework of his own evolutionary doctrine.